Прилог за повест породице Глигорија Јефтановића у турско доба
Contribution to the history of the family of Gligorije Jeftanović in Turkish period
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Економски успон трговачке породице Јефтановић током XVIII и XIX века типичан је за стварање српског грађанског слоја у доба турске владавине. Из ове породице потицао је Глигорије Јефтановић, вођа српског аутономног покрета у Босни и Херцеговини у време аустроугарске управе. Јефтановићи су потицали од Поповића (Косовчића) из Самобора у Херцеговини. У Сарајево су се доселили у XVIII веку. Уздизање породице започиње са Петром Хаџи Тузлом, који је упоредо с ћурчијским занатом почео да се бави трговином, да би у време његовог сина Манојла Јефтановића (1791–1878) постали једна од најмоћнијих трговачких кућа у Босни. Манојло је трговао на простору од Смирне (Мала Азија) до Беча и Лајпцига. Био је врло утицајан у српској православној општини у Сарајеву, коју је новчано помагао (подизање нове цркве, издржавање школа, помоћ сиротињи и затвореницима). Био је члан Управног већа босанског вилајета. У раду с...е прати однос појединих чланова породице Јефтановић према турским властима, Србији, Русији, Аустрији и српском национално- ослободилачком покрету, као и учешће у културном и просветном препороду шездесетих година XIX века.
Merchant family Jeftanović had been in mid XIX century one of the most prosperous Serbian merchant families in Bosnia. Gligorije Jeftanović, leader of the Serbian autonomous movement during the Austro- Hungarian rule, was of this family. The Jeftanovićs descended from the Popovićs (the Kosovčićs) from Samobor in Herzegovina. They moved to Sarajevo in XVIII century. The family had begun its rise late in XVIII century with Petar Hadži Tuzla (Jeftanović) who alongside his fur industry started to trade. During XVIII and first half of the XIX century the Jeftanovićs rised in similar way as other trade families from Sarajevo. The townspeople of the middle- class who were Orthodox in bigger towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina were mostly tradesmen and artisans. In the towns which were founded by the Turks after the conquest, the Serbian artisans were almost always newcomers from nearby or faraway country areas. Sa...rajevo had been developing from the very beginning as a prominently Oriental, Muslim city. Serbian population in towns had been in the same position as the Serbian population in villages – in a subordinate position as subjects without rights. The Turks avoided engaging in “dirty” crafts, like fur industry, which consequently allowed the Serbs possibility to gain precedence in this craft. The economic strengthening of the Bosnian merchants developed parallel to the weakening of Dubrovnik and Venice after the long Venetian- Turkish wars in XVII century. Till mid XVII century merchants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially from Sarajevo and Mostar, took over almost completely the trade of Dubrovnik with the Balkans. The Jeftanovićs’ greatest rise happened during life of Hadži Tuzla’s son, Manojlo Jeftanović (1791–1878), who took over the family business from his father in 1815. Manojlo traded on the territory from Smyrna in Asia Minor to Vienna and Leipzig. He was the first Serbian merchant from Sarajevo to open a permanent commission shop in Vienna (1848) where his sons worked and tried their hands in contemporary trade. History of the Jeftanovićs represents at the same time the history of the rising of the Serbian middle- class in Bosnia and Herzegovina. With their effort within the framework of the fur industry and trade, they managed to maintain certain forms of economic independence in the city with prevailing Muslim (Turkish) population. The Jeftanovićs, like many Serbian middle- class families, were helping out Serbian churches and monasteries cherishing thus Orthodox tradition of Saint Sava from the times of the Nemanjićs. Manojlo had great influence in Serbian Orthodox municipality in Sarajevo. He was respected by the Turks, too. In the period of Osman-paša, he was elected representative of the Managing body of the Bosnian ejalet (Upravno veće), 1865–1869, which was a kind of advisory body to Bosnian valija (deputy). The paper researches the attitude of the members of the Jeftanović family to the Turkish authorities, Serbia, Russia, Austria and Serbian nationalliberation movement, especially in the sixties, when (during prince Mihail’s rule), the question of the unity of Bosnia and Herzegovina with Kneževina Srbija was raised. Until the uprising of 1875, Serbian and Russian public had a negative opinion of the richest Serbian merchants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, thinking that they were not helping enough poorer Serbians and were not cooperative in the struggle for liberation of these territories from the Turkish rule. In connection with it, the conduct of Manojlo Jeftanović is researched into during the trial of Vasa Pelagić (1869). We searched for the causes of such unfavorable opinion of the Serbian and Russian public towards the Jeftanovićs and concluded that there had been many exaggerations connected with it. Such point of view would gradually change, especially after 1873 when a group of merchants from Banja Luka and Gradiška confronted Turkish authorities. There was a change in attitude towards the tradesmen from Sarajevo, too. This was largely a result of archimandrite Sava Kosanović, who, during his stay in Moscow presented Russian historian Nil Popov with the data on the Serbian Orthodox municipality in Sarajevo. Based on these data, in brochure of 1873, he, instead of the Serbian merchants, accused metropolitan Dabrobosanski Dionisije II who had been telling on the Serbian patriots to the Turkish authorities. Towards the end of the uprising, “Zastava“ from Novi Sad changed its attitude towards the Jeftanovićs, renouncing their unfavorable opinion on Serbian middle class in whole. Such an attitude was formed in this magazine during the previous decade under influence of the ideas of the left wing of the United Serbian youth. The paper investigates the work of the trade’s youth, organized in the manner of the United Serbian youth, as well as the work of the educating circle around Bogoljub (Teofil) Petranović (collections of folk oral tradition, etc). The final part of the paper (the conclusion) presents life and work of Gligorije Jeftanović until the unification (1918), concluding that his work already was falling into oblivion in the period between the two great world wars. His son Dušan (killed in the concentration camp Jadovno in 1941 in Croatia) lost his life in the very state for the creation of which Gligorije so unselfishly intervened.
Keywords:трговина / ћурчијски (крзнарски) занат / Манојло Јефтановић / Глигорије Јефрановић / Босна и Херцеговина / Турска / српски национално- ослободилачки покрет / српска трговачка омладина у Сарајеву
Source:Зборник за историју Босне и Херцеговине, 2012, 7, 191-238
- Београд : Српска академија наука и уметности
- Recueil de l’histoire de bosnie et herzegovine, 7