Метафора и метонимија у детињству речи
Metaphor and Metonymy in ,,Childhood of Words”
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In this study functional and semantic features of words in ontogenesis have been investigated. It 1s pointed out to the vagueness and diversity following the contemporary interpretation. The difference between two kinds of metaphors that are distinguished in the classical] papers (so-called ,. metaphor on the basis of analogy” and un-analogical metaphor) is illustrated with examples from Serbian language including Serbian translation of Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Poetics. Both kinds of metaphors are understood as transferring of expressions and not as transferred meaning, ,,figurative meaning”, ,,transferring of names”, etc. The way of using words by children of different ages has been followed in the main part of the study (Ontogenetic approach). The analysis 1s based on the corpus consisting of published children answers, collected m psychological query (pre-school and school children). In the first part of speech development, in other words, from the occurrence of the firs...t word to the first sentence (during the second year of life), using of metaphor is prevailing. Hyperextended word as a signal, expression of a joined feeling and observation, is transferred (or extended) to everything provoking feeling-observation with children and then 1s connected in a memory with specific terms (e.g. ney *hot’, maya ’a kitty’, my-my *moo-moo’). In the next phase, global expression (hyperextended word) is decomposed to the name of an object and expressions for the names of the object features. It is a formal phase that marks the start of forming two classes of units: those permanently based on the meaning (verbs and adjectives) and those which will transfer the meaning without relevant functional changes and develop from a name-label into the stable thinking unit (word-concept, noun). Our examples have obviously confirmed knowledge that the emergence of concept is closely connected with the reorganization of pre-concepts showing that each reorganization is a forming binary class of objects which visible differences are strengthen by conventional expressions of features (it 1s moving out of place by carrying or leading it; ,,1t1s moving out of space” by demolishing, etc.) It 1s showed that moving has a particular place, and more precisely, reviving different kinds of movements given the possibilities, conditions, manners, willingness, appropriateness, etc. It has been indicated that the ways of using first children words, as well as using of new, dependent words in a child speech, are almost identical to the ways of forming and existing of linguistic conceptual metaphor. Only emotional or mainly emotional state of | consciousness, which 1s not logically connected with relationships and relations among objects, can permit transferring of expressions such as sofi, to be burned, to stand etc. Closely related 1s the phenomenon of using the adjectives ,,pretty” and ,,good”, expression of "emotional observation", being unconscious, which is never connected with a ,,regular case” and they are never linked to metaphor although easily,,transferred” to variable objects without any limitation.
У раду се износе запажања о деловању метафорских и метонимијских механизама у онтогенези. На метафорском језичком принципу почива хиперек- стензивна примена првих детињих речи, глобалних по својим функционално-семантичким својствима. Са разлагањем глобалног израза, тј. са појавом реченице, неопажени (и несвесни) метафорски механизми настављају управљати зависним лексичким речима (глаголима и придевима), док се именица из њих искључује и препушта се неопаженом дејству метонимије. Показују се и битне разлике у условима (и последицама) преношења именица различите категоријалне припадности.
Keywords:метафора / преношење / метонимија / говорни развитак / смисао / значење / појам
Source:Српски језик, 2009, 14, 1-2, 347-360
- Београд : Научно друштво за неговање и проучавање српског језика
- Београд : Филолошки факултет
- Никшић : Филолошки факултет