Топонимија невесињског села Биограда
The toponymy of the village Biograd near Nevesinje
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The paper deals with the toponomastic data collected in the village of Biograd, belonging to the municipality of Nevesinje in East Herzegovina. Their quantity is astonishing; a single rural settlement provided totally 1505 microtoponyms, which is unparalleled so far within the Serbian language area. In sum, they bear witness of ethnic and linguistic continuity in the region, preserve memory of historical or anecdotic events and reflect both material and spiritual culture of the people living there in the present and in the past. Among the names motivated by the landform configuration, those of elevated landforms (Brdo, Brijeg, Greda, Krš, etc.) and those designating depressions (Vala, Do, Dolina, Pod, Podina, etc.) are equally represented. The abundance of water found expression in the names of hydrological objects, both natural (Bara, Voda, Vrelo, Ljeljenski izvor, Potok, etc.) and artificial (Bunar, Močilo, Stublina, Čatrnja, etc.). The local flora and fauna are adequately reflected... too in the microtoponymy of Biograd, a village with no bare spots. Among the phytonyms underlying the microtoponyms are names of trees, both fruitful and unfruitful (Višnjice, Jabuka, Kruška, Trešnja, Šljivik, etc.; Brijes, Bukvik, Vrba, Jasika, etc.), of cereals and vegetables (Graovišta, Krtolište, Lanište, Ražnica, etc.), of herbs and other plants (Brštan greda, Zubača, Lopar, etc.). Of zoonyms, the most prominent group constitute the names of mammals, both domestic and wild (Volujak, Goveđa vlaka, Kobilj do, Kozica, Mačija gruda, Svinjac, etc.; Vučija dolina, Zeči do, Jazavčine, Lisičina, etc.); the birds are fairly represented (Golubov do, Jastrebić, Lastavica, Orlove kamenice, Ćukovina, etc.), the reptils (Zminjaci, Zmiokoljak) and the insects (Osište) rather rarely. A considerable part of the microtoponyms refer to the husbandry, in the first place to the agriculture (Bašta, Voćnjak, Vrti, Guvno, Lanište, Njiva, Ornica, etc.), then to the cattle breading (Kotari, Pojatine, Solila, Torine, etc.), and also to some other economic activities (Kameni zid, Klačina, Kameno korito, Majdan, Mlin, Stupa, Ćuprija, etc.). To the imaginative capacities of the local people bear testimony metaphorical denominations, most of them based on the site and the appearance of the object (Bradva, Vijenac, Glavica, Dubak, Kazani, Koljeno, Kita, Kuk, Lopata, Noga, Okruglaš, Popreka, Rebra, Sač do, Sedlo, Šija, etc.) and many on its qualities (Gladnjica, Glibovac, Grkulja, Dronjak, Žutača, Zlatac, Krtina, Piljuša, Piljci, Slatka dolina, Smrdanov pod, Ušljo, etc.). The population continuity of the village resulted in a considerable number of place names derived from anthroponyms, which includes first names and nicknames (Antov vrt, Vulova lazina, Kostadina, Milošev do, Obrenov krš, Ružin vrt, Stakina bašča, Ćetkove lazine, etc.), as well as family names (Blagojevića klanac, Grčića do, Dabića vrt, Đerića doline, Ljutovića do, Popadića do, Remetina Varda, Spremov do, etc.), professional designations and titles (Adžina glavica, Begov gaj, Đedov do, Kovačeva jama, Oračeva dolina, etc.). Toponymic derivatives from Islamic proper names (Avdov gaj, Alin vrt, Adžibegovića brijeg, Adžova bara, Demerovića potok, Kulašev do, Đulagina luka, Memedova njiva, Mešova bašča, Mujov pod, Musina pećina, Samardžino brdo, Selimovića brijeg, Suljevača, Fatimina luka, Fočevina, etc.) are partially due to the process of Islamization under Ottoman rule, but some of the eponymous people may have been Christians, in view of the fact that among the Serbs there was the custom to give their children Turkish nicknames for prophylactic purposes. Expectedly, the lion’s share of the onomasticon extrapolated from the microtoponyms of Biograd is of Slavic-Serbian and Christian-Orthodox provenance (Budova bara, Đokova Rosulja, Jokov greb, Stakina bašča, Stankov do, etc.).
Keywords:српски језик / топоними / село Биоград / Република Српска
Source:Ономатолошки прилози, књ. XXIII, 2016, 27-109
- Београд : Српска академија наука и уметности, 2016