Нематеријално културно наслеђе у Србији: праксе, знања и иницијативе
Intangible Cultural Heritage in Serbia: Practices, Knowledge and Initiatives
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Елементи нематеријалног културног наслеђа представљају се као динамични процеси, живе праксе, успостављајући својеврсне културне политике на локалном, регионалном и глобалном нивоу. У Србији се нематеријално културно наслеђе пројектује као стратегија државне политике, акумулирана научна знања, мреже разноврсних интеракција и перцепцијe његових носилаца. Имплементација нематеријалног културног наслеђа према Конвенцији Унескa покреће многа питања и иницијативе, о чему ће бити речи у овом раду.
The elements of intangible cultural heritage are presented as dynamic processes and live practices, while establishing distinct cultural policies at local, regional and global levels. In Serbia, intangible cultural heritage is projected as a national policy strategy, accumulated academic knowledge, networks of various interactions and perceptions of its bearers. The implementation of the intangible cultural heritage policy according to the UNESCO Convention and the expression of this heritage through the specific experience of its bearers raises many issues and initiatives. The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage was ratified in 2010 in Serbia. In 2011, two bodies entrusted with its implementation were established under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Serbia: the National Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Commission for Inscription of Intangible Cultural Heritage in th...e National Register. In 2012, the Centre for Intangible Cultural Heritage was established at the Ethnographic Museum in Belgrade. The tasks of the Centre include research, registration, cataloguing, preservation and presentation of intangible cultural heritage in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, as well as assistance to local communities in identifying, evaluation, practice and transmission of their own cultural heritage to the next generations. The nominations that have so far been evaluated by the Commission for the National Register of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the National Committee can be classified into three groups: performance practices, crafts, and ritual and religious elements. Elements of intangible cultural heritage are presented in two ways: 1) by selecting customs, rituals, traditions, performance practice, and other elements that are identified as candidates for nomination for UNESCO lists (slava – the first element inscribed on the UNESCO list); 2) by selecting those elements in the national list which should draw attention to some customs and practices, with the aim of registering and protecting them as such, or enabling them to continue to live (more than forty elements have been registered so far). Having in mind the implementation of the intangible cultural heritage policy and the experience of work on its preservation and safeguarding we believe that it is necessary to constantly launch initiatives and review previous work, e.g. intangible cultural heritage should be treated as a process and not as a state; the emphasis should be laid on its creative potentials; heritage should be treated as a holder of human rights, freedom of choice arising from the diversity of experiences devoid of any form of discrimination; heritage should be subject to certain evaluations and control in order to encourage quality and reduce the randomness of selection, encourage children’s creativity and heritage among women, encourage intangible cultural heritage in multicultural environments and identify elements that connect and not those that divide.
Keywords:нематеријално културно наслеђе / Србија / Унеско / Конвенција / праксе / intangible cultural heritage / Serbia / UNESCO / practices / convention
Source:Гласник Етнографског музеја у Београду / Bulletin of the Ethnographic Museum in Belgrade, 2015, 79, 165-178
- Beograd: Etnografski muzej
- Cultural heritage and identity (RS-177026)