Pravci razvoja prozodijskog sistema u slovenskim jezicima
The Directions of Prosodic Changes in Slavic Languages
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The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the study of the typology of sound changes in Slavic languages. The Late Common Slavic prosodie pattern included three distinctive features on the level of word phonology: (place of) accent, quantity and tone. In most Slavic languages this pattern underwent far-reaching changes. The general trend was towards simplification of the pattern, so that in most dialects only stress, or only quantity, or no prosodie feature at all remain distinctive. The only geographic area where both accent and quantity were preserved as DF embraces most Serbocroatian and some Slovene dialects. Tone distinctions occur as a rule only in dialects where the two other DF are present. Accent shirts are predominantly regressive. Usually, the accent was transferred to the immediately preceding syllable. Shortening of vowels is much more widespread than lengthening, especially in unaccented sylla bles. The typical direction of tone changes is rising -* falli...ng. In all these cases the general trend is to replace the structurally marked situation by the unmarked one (as to accent placement, we must bear in mind that there exists a certain collision between accent near the end of the word and the neutral sentence intonation, which is usually falling). However, changes in the opposite direction, too, are attested. Thus, there are also instances of progressive shifts, lengthenings and tone changes from falling to rising. Prosodie contrasts proved to be relatively unstable. This appears to be a consequence of their nature, which is quantitative (no „yes or no" contrasts, but „more or less" of something) and therefore relational and, to a certain extent, abstract. Within the prosodie domain, accent proves to be the most stable DF, whereas tone is the most unstable one. The hiearchy of the geographical areas of accent, quantity and tone in Slavic corresponds to the general European situation. Lost prosodie DF get reintroduced relatively rarely. The sources of such innovations are : rephonologization of certain segmental features, intro duction of loanwords, analogical processes in inflection or word formation, or the generalization of an originally expressive pronunciation. However, in such cases the new distinction usually remains on the periphery of the phonological pattern.
Source:Јужнословенски филолог, 1987, 43, 1-16
- Београд : Институт за српскохрватски језик