Mechanochemically induced amorphous/crystalline phase transition in the Bi4Ti3O12 compound
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Concurrent milling of Bi4Ti3O12 was carried out in a planetary ball mill with hardened-steel 13 or 6 mm diameter balls with a goal to investigate how the system responds to the constrains imposed by milling. Milling intensity for various milling parameters was derived from the electrical power measurement. The reverse amorphous ↔ crystalline phase transition induced by milling is governed by impact energy and frequency. Below a certain threshold value of impact energy crystallization does not occur, whereas a higher impact frequency accelerates amorphization. Mechanochemical reactions are predominantly discrete processes, which occur at the moment of impact. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Ferroelectrics / Mechanochemistry / X-ray techniques
Source:Materials Letters, 2009, 63, 29, 2542-2544