Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity
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A water-soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) was encapsulated together with poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) within a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric matrix and their synergistic effects were studied. The PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles synthesized by a physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems are spherical, have a mean diameter of 775 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.158. The encapsulation efficiency of AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid within PLGA was determined to be >90%. The entire amount of encapsulated ascorbic acid was released in 68 days, and the entire amount of AgNpPGAs was released in 87 days of degradation. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, as well as antimicrobial activity against seven different pathogens was investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay i...ndicated good biocompatibility of these PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles. We measured the kinetics of ROS formation in HepG2 cells by a DCFH-DA assay, and found that PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid caused a significant decrease in DCF fluorescence intensity, which was 2-fold lower than that in control cells after a 5 h exposure. This indicates that the PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid microspheres either act as scavengers of intracellular ROS and/or reduce their formation. Also, the results of antimicrobial activity of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid obtained by the broth microdilution method showed superior and extended activity of these particles. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and particle size analysis. This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of infection that at the same time offers a very pronounced antioxidant effect.
Keywords:antioxidants / silver nanoparticles / biomedical materials / PLGA / antimicrobial activity
Source:Acta Biomaterialia, 2014, 10, 1, 151-162