Zmije u medicinskoj praksi starog Kotora (Snakes in Medical Practice of the Old Cattaro)
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Based on the surviving written sources and works of art from the later middle and early modern ages in the city of Cataro, this paper deals with the properties attributed to the serpent. The serpent is seen as an animal, or symbol, with a distinct dual nature: one that kills, and one that heals. Such properties of snakes were well known to the doctors and pharmacists of Cataro, whose knowledge and belief in the power of snakes were introduced into medical practice. One of the major topics that interested the medieval citizens of Cataro was providing care for a poisonous snakebite. Among the surviving medical incunabula medical, a book printed in 1494 is about the effects of antidotes in practice of famous doctors. More than a century earlier, in the second half of the 14th century, the ciborium of the cathedral dedicated to Saint Tryphon in Cataro was adorned with a scene of this martyr from Asia Minor (and patron of the city) miraculously curing a boy bitten by a snake. Besides the pa...tron saint, Saint Tryphon, citizens of Cataro also believed in help of other saints in case of the venomous snake bite (Sts Margareta, Veneranda, and Anastasia). During the 14th century, their images were represent on the arches of in the cathedral. The other side of serpent – the one that heals, was also known to the doctors and pharmacists of Cataro, who were mainly Italians, educated at the leading schools of medicine and universities in Salerno, Padua, and Bologna. The most famous medicine, starting from antiquity, was teriaca which had snake flesh as one of the main ingredients. It is mentioned in the oldest list of necessary medicines for the year 1556 in Cataro. The city doctor, Lodovico Buzacarino, completed a list of the most needed drugs that the pharmacy of Cataro should have permanently, considering the most frequent diseases in the city. After the epidemics of plague, the significance and value of teriaca became even greater, as it was believed to help with the plague too.
На основу сачуваних писаних извора и ликовних дела из времена позног средњег и раног новог века у Котору, разматрана су својстваприписивана змији. Њена изразита дуалистичка природа – она која убијаи она која лечи – била је добро позната которским лекарима и апoтекарима који су своја знања о змији и веровања у моћи змије примењивали у медицинској пракси.
Keywords:Dubrovnik / lečenje / Kotor / Cattaro / Dubrovnik / medical practice
Source:Гује и јакрепи — књижевност, култура, 2012, 367-384
- Beograd : Balkanološki instiutu SANU
- Published in: http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/965