Политика у контексту "оперског питања" у Народном позоришту пред Први светски рат
Politics in the context of the "opera question" in the National theatre before the First World War
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Испрекидани процеси унапређења музичке гране Народног позоришта и њеног репертоара у годинама пред Први светски рат (1906–1914) били су условљени честим променама позоришних власти којима је решавање оперског питања служило као погодно средство у међусобним страначким сукобима. Тај аспект политике сагледан је из различитих истраживачких перспектива, с циљем да се укаже на сложеност контекста који је био означен одсуством дугорочне програмске политике и комуникације међу представницима позоришних опонената, али и јазом између замисли уметничке елите и културних потреба престоничког грађанства.
Part of the history of the National Theatre in Belgrade in the decade before the First World War relates to processes of discontinuity in the professionalization and modernization of the musical section in this institution and its repertoire. It had to do with abrupt changes refl ected in three short-lived phases: improvements in musical ensemble and opera performances (1906– 1909), the annulment of these efforts and results with a return to the old repertoire, and then again a new beginning once more with a fresh attempt to establish the Opera (1913–14). These dynamics were affected by the social and political context. It was dependent on frequent changes of the Theatre’s management staff whose main representatives had mutually conflicting views on important questions concerning the functioning of their institution. Relations between them were strongly marked by contested political motives. Theatre managers were appointed by ministers of education who could also be relieve...d of their posts, and members of the management staff were always active in political parties. These facts acted as a decisive factor in their communication which was similar to the behaviour and customs of public political life where an opponent is seen as an enemy, not as a partner in solving common problems. Critical and polemical discourses on important aspects of organization and programme strategy of the Theatre were burdened by political rivalry which also found its place in discussions on the cultivation of music. Questions relating to music were considered in a declarative way, so that music was instrumentalized as a means of political empowerment.The facts about music in the National Theatre raise many issues related to aspects of modernization, national identifi cation, transfers of high and popular musical cultures as well as to other problems of social, historical and cultural contexts that were intertwined in the operation of the Theatre. The context of political problems in the National Theatre opens some important topics discussed in the text: the discontinuous process of the development of the musical ensemble and its repertoire in conditions of changing management staff; prominent musical professionals and ideologists of cultural life and their relations to the musical and dramatic repertoire as well as to their audiences; potential Belgrade audience reception and their reactions to the musical and dramatic repertoire of the National Theatre. An integral analysis of these may show inconsistency between ideological and artistic intentions of individuals and the needs of the audience during the course of modernization.
Keywords:политика / политичке странке / оперско питање / уметничка елита / позоришна публика / politics / political parties / opera question / artistic elite / theatre audience
Source:Музикологија, 2012, 12, 37-61
- Београд : Музиколошки институт САНУ