The master sintering curves for BaTi0.975Sn0.025O3/BaTi0.85S n0.15O3 functionally graded materials
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The most important aim in the design and processing of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is to produce devices free from any deformation. Smart choices of different combination of graded layers, as well as the heating rate during sintering, are important for the fabrication of high-quality FGMs. In this study, BaTi0.975Sn0.025O3/BaTi0.85S n0.15O3 (noted as BTS2.5 and BTS15, respectively) FGM was used as a model system for the construction of master sintering curves (MSCs) and estimation of the effective activation energies of sintering for different BTS graded layers. The MSCs were constructed, for BTS2.5 and BTS15 graded layers in FGMs, using shrinkage data obtained by a heating microscope during sintering at four constant heating rates, 2, 5, 10 and 20 °/min. The effective activation energies were determined using the concept of MSC; values of 359.5 and 340.5 kJ/mol were obtained for graded layers BTS2.5 and BTS15, respectively. A small difference of the effective activation energ...ies of chosen powders made it possible for us to prepare high-quality FGMs, without delamination, distortion or other forms of defects. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:sintering / composites / BaTiO3 / diffusion / Master Sintering Curve / titanates
Source:Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 2009, 29, 11, 2309-2316