Surface analysis of bismuth titanate by Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
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The Auger and XPS technique has been used for investigation in the surface of bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) (BIT) ceramics obtained by reactive sintering from Bi2O3 and TiO2 oxides. All peaks characteristic for bismuth, titanium and oxygen are clearly visible in the spectrum. Oxygen vacancies are preferentially sited in the vicinity of bismuth ions observed by our X-ray photoemission data. The variation in the valence state of titanium ions is also possible. The XPS and AES measurements confirm that the surface elemental composition of bismuth titanate ceramics does not deviate from nominal bulk composition. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:ferroelectrics / sintering / photoelectron spectroscopy
Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2009, 469, 1-2, 441-444