Branko Ćopićs the upside down story or on the experiential basis of lexical and grammatical categories
Изокренута прича Бранка Ћопића или о искуственој утемељености лексичких и граматичких категорија
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The author sets out to explore the popular and humorous text by Branko Ćopić entitled The Upside Down Story (which begins with 'Just after the hill appeared from behind the sun, the bed jumped out of the spatious old man, put the feet on his shoes and the head on his hat, and opened the house of the door'). It turns out that the answer to the question 'What is actually upside down?' calls for an analysis in semantic, rather than purely syntactic terms on the one hand - localizer (L) and object of localization (OL), and on the other - agent (A), instrument (I), and patient (P). The humorous effect is stronger if the 'upside down' entities are more typical members of their categories. The 'upside down' relations get their value from two experiential gestalts (in the sense developed in cognitive semantics): L and OL are parts of the perceptual gestalt, and the chain A-I-P forms a functional gestalt. The first represents the semantic basis of the lexical category of prepositions, and the s...econd - of the grammatical categories of transitivity and instrumental and accusative cases. This confirms one of the major claims of cognitive semantics - that both lexical and grammatical categories are symbolic in nature and grounded in everyday perceptual and motor experience. The analysis also yields some insight into the general structure of experiential gestalts: they consist of two opposite but complementary elements (L and OL, A and P etc); even when formed by more than one element (like in the A-I-P chain), they can be broken down to binary relations.
U radu se analizira humoristički tekst Branka Ćopića pod nazivom Izokrenuta priča. Odgovor na pitanje 'Šta je, zapravo, u njoj izokrenuto?' vodi do opisa tzv. iskustvenih geštalta koji stoje u osnovi predloških značenja (dakle leksičkih kategorija) i gramatičkih kategorija tranzitivnosti, akuzativa i instrumentala. Prilikom analize potvrđuje se i prototipska struktura navedenih kategorija.