Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis
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Veljković, Vlada B.
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Calcium-containing perovskites CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 were synthesized by calcination of mechanochemically treated stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and either TiO2, MnO2, ZrO2 or Fe2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a pure single perovskite phase for all four samples after calcination. This study proved that the pure perovskite phase exhibited low or no catalytic activity at 60 °C for the methanolysis of sunflower oil. However, at 165 °C FAME yield of more than 90% was reached after 2 h using CaTiO3, CaMnO3 and CaZrO3 as catalyst. Contrary to inactive pure perovskites at 60 °C, the CaTiO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 samples containing a very small amount of “free” CaO also showed methanolysis activity at 60 °C. This fact can be used to explain some contradictory statements reported in literature related to the perovskites as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis at mild temperatures.
Keywords:Biodiesel / Transesterification / Perovskites / Catalytic activity / Calcium oxid
Source:Fuel Processing Technology, 2016, 143, 162-168