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Skala, Dejan

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Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil

Zdujić, Miodrag; Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Janković-Častvan, Ivona; Marković, Smilja; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Janković-Častvan, Ivona
AU  - Marković, Smilja
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5142
AB  - The powder mixtures of calcium oxide (CaO) and silica gel (SiO2) in molar ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were mechanochemically treated with the addition of water, and were subsequently calcined with a goal of synthesizing CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7, Ca2SiO4 compounds and CaO/Ca2SiO4 two-phase mixture. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Hammett indicator for basic strength and volumetric analysis for free CaO content. The catalytic activity of calcium silicates with different Ca/Si ratios was tested in the transesterification of triacylglycerols (sunflower oil) with methanol. Samples obtained with initial composition 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C, and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 900 °C had high catalytic activity, resulting with triacylglycerols conversion and fatty acids methyl ester formation (FAME or biodiesel) above 96%. The activity of these samples can be attributed to the existence of free CaO defined by CaO/Ca2SiO4 complex mixture. The effect of different amount of catalyst used for transesterification (0.2–2 wt%) was analyzed using the most active catalyst i.e. 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C as well as possibility of its reuse for biodiesel synthesis. It was also found that CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7 and Ca2SiO4, phases did not possess catalytic activity.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Advanced Powder Technology
T1  - Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil
SP  - 1141
EP  - 1150
VL  - 30
IS  - 6
DO  - 10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zdujić, Miodrag and Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Janković-Častvan, Ivona and Marković, Smilja and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2019",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615, http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5142",
abstract = "The powder mixtures of calcium oxide (CaO) and silica gel (SiO2) in molar ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were mechanochemically treated with the addition of water, and were subsequently calcined with a goal of synthesizing CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7, Ca2SiO4 compounds and CaO/Ca2SiO4 two-phase mixture. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Hammett indicator for basic strength and volumetric analysis for free CaO content. The catalytic activity of calcium silicates with different Ca/Si ratios was tested in the transesterification of triacylglycerols (sunflower oil) with methanol. Samples obtained with initial composition 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C, and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 900 °C had high catalytic activity, resulting with triacylglycerols conversion and fatty acids methyl ester formation (FAME or biodiesel) above 96%. The activity of these samples can be attributed to the existence of free CaO defined by CaO/Ca2SiO4 complex mixture. The effect of different amount of catalyst used for transesterification (0.2–2 wt%) was analyzed using the most active catalyst i.e. 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C as well as possibility of its reuse for biodiesel synthesis. It was also found that CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7 and Ca2SiO4, phases did not possess catalytic activity.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Advanced Powder Technology",
title = "Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil",
pages = "1141-1150",
volume = "30",
number = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009"
}
Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č.,& Skala, D. (2019). Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil.
Advanced Powder TechnologyElsevier., 30(6), 1141-1150. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
Zdujić M, Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Janković-Častvan I, Marković S, Jovalekić Č, Skala D. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. 2019;30(6):1141-1150
8
4
9

Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil

Zdujić, Miodrag; Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Janković-Častvan, Ivona; Marković, Smilja; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Janković-Častvan, Ivona
AU  - Marković, Smilja
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5802
AB  - The powder mixtures of calcium oxide (CaO) and silica gel (SiO2) in molar ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were mechanochemically treated with the addition of water, and were subsequently calcined with a goal of synthesizing CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7, Ca2SiO4 compounds and CaO/Ca2SiO4 two-phase mixture. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Hammett indicator for basic strength and volumetric analysis for free CaO content. The catalytic activity of calcium silicates with different Ca/Si ratios was tested in the transesterification of triacylglycerols (sunflower oil) with methanol. Samples obtained with initial composition 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C, and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 900 °C had high catalytic activity, resulting with triacylglycerols conversion and fatty acids methyl ester formation (FAME or biodiesel) above 96%. The activity of these samples can be attributed to the existence of free CaO defined by CaO/Ca2SiO4 complex mixture. The effect of different amount of catalyst used for transesterification (0.2–2 wt%) was analyzed using the most active catalyst i.e. 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C as well as possibility of its reuse for biodiesel synthesis. It was also found that CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7 and Ca2SiO4, phases did not possess catalytic activity.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Advanced Powder Technology
T1  - Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil
SP  - 1141
EP  - 1150
VL  - 30
IS  - 6
DO  - 10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zdujić, Miodrag and Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Janković-Častvan, Ivona and Marković, Smilja and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2019",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615, http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5802",
abstract = "The powder mixtures of calcium oxide (CaO) and silica gel (SiO2) in molar ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were mechanochemically treated with the addition of water, and were subsequently calcined with a goal of synthesizing CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7, Ca2SiO4 compounds and CaO/Ca2SiO4 two-phase mixture. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Hammett indicator for basic strength and volumetric analysis for free CaO content. The catalytic activity of calcium silicates with different Ca/Si ratios was tested in the transesterification of triacylglycerols (sunflower oil) with methanol. Samples obtained with initial composition 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C, and 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 900 °C had high catalytic activity, resulting with triacylglycerols conversion and fatty acids methyl ester formation (FAME or biodiesel) above 96%. The activity of these samples can be attributed to the existence of free CaO defined by CaO/Ca2SiO4 complex mixture. The effect of different amount of catalyst used for transesterification (0.2–2 wt%) was analyzed using the most active catalyst i.e. 3CaO·SiO2 calcined at 700 °C as well as possibility of its reuse for biodiesel synthesis. It was also found that CaSiO3, Ca3Si2O7 and Ca2SiO4, phases did not possess catalytic activity.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Advanced Powder Technology",
title = "Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil",
pages = "1141-1150",
volume = "30",
number = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009"
}
Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č.,& Skala, D. (2019). Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil.
Advanced Powder TechnologyElsevier., 30(6), 1141-1150. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
Zdujić M, Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Janković-Častvan I, Marković S, Jovalekić Č, Skala D. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. 2019;30(6):1141-1150
8
4
9

Supporting information for the article: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009

Zdujić, Miodrag; Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Janković-Častvan, Ivona; Marković, Smilja; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Skala, Dejan

(2019)

TY  - BOOK
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Janković-Častvan, Ivona
AU  - Marković, Smilja
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5974
T2  - Advanced Powder Technology
T1  - Supporting information for the article: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019.  Synthesis  of  CaOSiO2  compounds  and  their  testing  as  heterogeneous  catalysts  for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
ER  - 
@misc{
author = "Zdujić, Miodrag and Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Janković-Častvan, Ivona and Marković, Smilja and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2019",
url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883119300615, http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/5974",
journal = "Advanced Powder Technology",
title = "Supporting information for the article: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019.  Synthesis  of  CaOSiO2  compounds  and  their  testing  as  heterogeneous  catalysts  for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009"
}
Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č.,& Skala, D. (2019). Supporting information for the article: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019.  Synthesis  of  CaOSiO2  compounds  and  their  testing  as  heterogeneous  catalysts  for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009.
Advanced Powder Technology, null. 
Zdujić M, Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Janković-Častvan I, Marković S, Jovalekić Č, Skala D. Supporting information for the article: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019.  Synthesis  of  CaOSiO2  compounds  and  their  testing  as  heterogeneous  catalysts  for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009. Advanced Powder Technology. 2019;

Supporting information: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology 30, 1141–1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009

Zdujić, Miodrag; Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Janković-Častvan, Ivona; Marković, Smilja; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2019)

TY  - BOOK
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Janković-Častvan, Ivona
AU  - Marković, Smilja
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2019
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/7045
AB  - Fig. 1S. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra of CaO-SiO2 system; Fig. 2S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO;  Fig. 3S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of SiO2;  Fig. 4S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h; Fig. 5S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO•SiO2 calcined at 900 °C/48 h;  Fig. 6S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 3CaO•2SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h;  Fig. 7S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 2CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h; Fig. 8S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 3CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Advanced Powder Technology
T1  - Supporting information: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology 30, 1141–1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009
VL  - 30
IS  - 6
ER  - 
@misc{
author = "Zdujić, Miodrag and Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Janković-Častvan, Ivona and Marković, Smilja and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2019",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/7045",
abstract = "Fig. 1S. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra of CaO-SiO2 system; Fig. 2S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO;  Fig. 3S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of SiO2;  Fig. 4S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h; Fig. 5S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of CaO•SiO2 calcined at 900 °C/48 h;  Fig. 6S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 3CaO•2SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h;  Fig. 7S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 2CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h; Fig. 8S. Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra (Tauc plot) of 3CaO•SiO2 calcined at 700 °C/2 h and 900 °C/48 h",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Advanced Powder Technology",
title = "Supporting information: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology 30, 1141–1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009",
volume = "30",
number = "6"
}
Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č.,& Skala, D. (2019). Supporting information: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology 30, 1141–1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009.
Advanced Powder TechnologyElsevier., 30(6). 
Zdujić M, Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Janković-Častvan I, Marković S, Jovalekić Č, Skala D. Supporting information: Zdujić, M., Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Janković-Častvan, I., Marković, S., Jovalekić, Č., Skala, D., 2019. Synthesis of CaOSiO2 compounds and their testing as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of sunflower oil. Advanced Powder Technology 30, 1141–1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2019.03.009. Advanced Powder Technology. 2019;30(6)

Synthesis of calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production

Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Zdujić, Miodrag; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Society of Physical Chemists of Serbia, 2018)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/4563
AB  - In this work, synthesis of several types of calcium oxide based catalysts by mechanochemical treatment and subsequent calcination is presented. Prepared nanocomposite CaO·ZnO, calcium containing perovskites CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5, a series of CaO·SiO2 mixed oxides and calcium diglyceroxide (CaDG) were characterized and tested in the methanolysis of sunflower oil under different working conditions: catalyst amount, agitation speed, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio.
PB  - Belgrade : Society of Physical Chemists of Serbia
C3  - Physical Chemistry 2018 : proceedings. Vol. 1 / 14th International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry, September 24-28, 2018
T1  - Synthesis of calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production
SP  - 193
EP  - 196
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Zdujić, Miodrag and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2018",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/4563",
abstract = "In this work, synthesis of several types of calcium oxide based catalysts by mechanochemical treatment and subsequent calcination is presented. Prepared nanocomposite CaO·ZnO, calcium containing perovskites CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5, a series of CaO·SiO2 mixed oxides and calcium diglyceroxide (CaDG) were characterized and tested in the methanolysis of sunflower oil under different working conditions: catalyst amount, agitation speed, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Society of Physical Chemists of Serbia",
journal = "Physical Chemistry 2018 : proceedings. Vol. 1 / 14th International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry, September 24-28, 2018",
title = "Synthesis of calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production",
pages = "193-196"
}
Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Zdujić, M.,& Skala, D. (2018). Synthesis of calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production.
Physical Chemistry 2018 : proceedings. Vol. 1 / 14th International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry, September 24-28, 2018Belgrade : Society of Physical Chemists of Serbia., null, 193-196. 
Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Zdujić M, Skala D. Synthesis of calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production. Physical Chemistry 2018 : proceedings. Vol. 1 / 14th International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry, September 24-28, 2018. 2018;:193-196

Biodiesel synthesis and kinetic analysis based on MnCO3/Na silicate as heterogeneous catalyst

Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Xiaochan; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Shen, Xiang; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Serbian Chemical Society, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zhang, Yanan
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Zhu, Xiaochan
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Shen, Xiang
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3751
AB  - Тhe MnCO3/Na silicate (Mn/Na/Si mole ratio of 4.65:1:1.65) catalyst in the form of solid particles with diameter of 0.99–1.99 mm was used as a catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil in batch autoclave at different conditions: 388–468 K, methanol-to-oil mole ratio 12:1–30:1, catalyst amount based on the mass of oil 0–12.5 %. The complete triacylglycerols (TAG) conversion and high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was obtained after 1 h at 458 K, methanol-to-oil mole ratio 30:1 and 10 % of catalyst. Kinetics of transesterification process was analyzed by three models: the simple first order irreversible reaction rate, as well as two more complex models recently reported in literature. The catalyst reuse in transesterification process was tested and the average values of 99.0 % of TAG conversion and 97.5 % of FAME yield were obtained after 8 consecutive runs. Different techniques were used to characterize fresh and used MnCO3/Na silicate catalyst. The determined amounts of leached Na (<500 ppm) and Mn (<20 ppm) in biodiesel phase implied that the homogeneous-heterogeneous process influences the catalyst selectivity, whereby leached Na enables the complete transformation of TAG to FAME.
PB  - Belgrade : Serbian Chemical Society
T2  - Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society
T1  - Biodiesel synthesis and kinetic analysis based on MnCO3/Na silicate as heterogeneous catalyst
SP  - 345
EP  - 365
VL  - 83
IS  - 3
DO  - 10.2298/JSC170612005Z
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zhang, Yanan and Liu, Hui and Zhu, Xiaochan and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Shen, Xiang and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2018",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3751",
abstract = "Тhe MnCO3/Na silicate (Mn/Na/Si mole ratio of 4.65:1:1.65) catalyst in the form of solid particles with diameter of 0.99–1.99 mm was used as a catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil in batch autoclave at different conditions: 388–468 K, methanol-to-oil mole ratio 12:1–30:1, catalyst amount based on the mass of oil 0–12.5 %. The complete triacylglycerols (TAG) conversion and high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was obtained after 1 h at 458 K, methanol-to-oil mole ratio 30:1 and 10 % of catalyst. Kinetics of transesterification process was analyzed by three models: the simple first order irreversible reaction rate, as well as two more complex models recently reported in literature. The catalyst reuse in transesterification process was tested and the average values of 99.0 % of TAG conversion and 97.5 % of FAME yield were obtained after 8 consecutive runs. Different techniques were used to characterize fresh and used MnCO3/Na silicate catalyst. The determined amounts of leached Na (<500 ppm) and Mn (<20 ppm) in biodiesel phase implied that the homogeneous-heterogeneous process influences the catalyst selectivity, whereby leached Na enables the complete transformation of TAG to FAME.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Serbian Chemical Society",
journal = "Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society",
title = "Biodiesel synthesis and kinetic analysis based on MnCO3/Na silicate as heterogeneous catalyst",
pages = "345-365",
volume = "83",
number = "3",
doi = "10.2298/JSC170612005Z"
}
Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Zhu, X., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Shen, X.,& Skala, D. (2018). Biodiesel synthesis and kinetic analysis based on MnCO3/Na silicate as heterogeneous catalyst.
Journal of the Serbian Chemical SocietyBelgrade : Serbian Chemical Society., 83(3), 345-365. 
https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC170612005Z
Zhang Y, Liu H, Zhu X, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Shen X, Skala D. Biodiesel synthesis and kinetic analysis based on MnCO3/Na silicate as heterogeneous catalyst. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. 2018;83(3):345-365
1
2
2

Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst

Liu, Hui; Lukić, Ivana; Miladinović, Marija R.; Veljković, Vlada B.; Zdujić, Miodrag; Zhu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Yanan; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Miladinović, Marija R.
AU  - Veljković, Vlada B.
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Zhu, Xiaosun
AU  - Zhang, Yanan
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3701
AB  - The continuous biodiesel production from soybean oil was carried out under the subcritical condition of methanol with MnCO3/Na-silicate as a heterogeneous catalyst. The transesterification rate was first investigated in a set of experiments performed in a batch autoclave at 448 K using methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 18:1 and various catalyst loadings (5, 10 and 20 wt% based on the oil mass). The results from these experiments, as well as the experimental data and the appropriate kinetic model recently reported in the literature were used for designing a packed bed tubular reactor (PBTR), a main unit of the pilot plant with the capacity of 100 L of biodiesel per day. The pilot plant was constructed and tested under various operating conditions. The first 11 h of the pilot-plant operation was realized in the tubular reactor packed with inert glass beads (i.e. without the catalyst) in order to analyze the effect of the non-catalyzed subcritical biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) production. Then, glass beads were replaced with a mix of MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst particles and glass beads, and the catalytic biodiesel production was continuously run under the subcritical methanol condition for 85 h. Two mass balance tests during the continuous pilot plant operation were performed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Energy Conversion and Management
T1  - Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst
SP  - 494
EP  - 504
VL  - 168
DO  - 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Liu, Hui and Lukić, Ivana and Miladinović, Marija R. and Veljković, Vlada B. and Zdujić, Miodrag and Zhu, Xiaosun and Zhang, Yanan and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2018",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3701",
abstract = "The continuous biodiesel production from soybean oil was carried out under the subcritical condition of methanol with MnCO3/Na-silicate as a heterogeneous catalyst. The transesterification rate was first investigated in a set of experiments performed in a batch autoclave at 448 K using methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 18:1 and various catalyst loadings (5, 10 and 20 wt% based on the oil mass). The results from these experiments, as well as the experimental data and the appropriate kinetic model recently reported in the literature were used for designing a packed bed tubular reactor (PBTR), a main unit of the pilot plant with the capacity of 100 L of biodiesel per day. The pilot plant was constructed and tested under various operating conditions. The first 11 h of the pilot-plant operation was realized in the tubular reactor packed with inert glass beads (i.e. without the catalyst) in order to analyze the effect of the non-catalyzed subcritical biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) production. Then, glass beads were replaced with a mix of MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst particles and glass beads, and the catalytic biodiesel production was continuously run under the subcritical methanol condition for 85 h. Two mass balance tests during the continuous pilot plant operation were performed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
title = "Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst",
pages = "494-504",
volume = "168",
doi = "10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028"
}
Liu, H., Lukić, I., Miladinović, M. R., Veljković, V. B., Zdujić, M., Zhu, X., Zhang, Y.,& Skala, D. (2018). Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst.
Energy Conversion and ManagementElsevier., 168, 494-504. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028
Liu H, Lukić I, Miladinović MR, Veljković VB, Zdujić M, Zhu X, Zhang Y, Skala D. Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 2018;168:494-504
2
2
2

Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst

Liu, Hui; Lukić, Ivana; Miladinović, Marija R.; Veljković, Vlada B.; Zdujić, Miodrag; Zhu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Yanan; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Miladinović, Marija R.
AU  - Veljković, Vlada B.
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Zhu, Xiaosun
AU  - Zhang, Yanan
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2018
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/4513
AB  - The continuous biodiesel production from soybean oil was carried out under the subcritical condition of methanol with MnCO3/Na-silicate as a heterogeneous catalyst. The transesterification rate was first investigated in a set of experiments performed in a batch autoclave at 448 K using methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 18:1 and various catalyst loadings (5, 10 and 20 wt% based on the oil mass). The results from these experiments, as well as the experimental data and the appropriate kinetic model recently reported in the literature were used for designing a packed bed tubular reactor (PBTR), a main unit of the pilot plant with the capacity of 100 L of biodiesel per day. The pilot plant was constructed and tested under various operating conditions. The first 11 h of the pilot-plant operation was realized in the tubular reactor packed with inert glass beads (i.e. without the catalyst) in order to analyze the effect of the non-catalyzed subcritical biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) production. Then, glass beads were replaced with a mix of MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst particles and glass beads, and the catalytic biodiesel production was continuously run under the subcritical methanol condition for 85 h. Two mass balance tests during the continuous pilot plant operation were performed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Energy Conversion and Management
T1  - Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst
SP  - 494
EP  - 504
VL  - 168
DO  - 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Liu, Hui and Lukić, Ivana and Miladinović, Marija R. and Veljković, Vlada B. and Zdujić, Miodrag and Zhu, Xiaosun and Zhang, Yanan and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2018",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/4513",
abstract = "The continuous biodiesel production from soybean oil was carried out under the subcritical condition of methanol with MnCO3/Na-silicate as a heterogeneous catalyst. The transesterification rate was first investigated in a set of experiments performed in a batch autoclave at 448 K using methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 18:1 and various catalyst loadings (5, 10 and 20 wt% based on the oil mass). The results from these experiments, as well as the experimental data and the appropriate kinetic model recently reported in the literature were used for designing a packed bed tubular reactor (PBTR), a main unit of the pilot plant with the capacity of 100 L of biodiesel per day. The pilot plant was constructed and tested under various operating conditions. The first 11 h of the pilot-plant operation was realized in the tubular reactor packed with inert glass beads (i.e. without the catalyst) in order to analyze the effect of the non-catalyzed subcritical biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) production. Then, glass beads were replaced with a mix of MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst particles and glass beads, and the catalytic biodiesel production was continuously run under the subcritical methanol condition for 85 h. Two mass balance tests during the continuous pilot plant operation were performed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
title = "Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst",
pages = "494-504",
volume = "168",
doi = "10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028"
}
Liu, H., Lukić, I., Miladinović, M. R., Veljković, V. B., Zdujić, M., Zhu, X., Zhang, Y.,& Skala, D. (2018). Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst.
Energy Conversion and ManagementElsevier., 168, 494-504. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.028
Liu H, Lukić I, Miladinović MR, Veljković VB, Zdujić M, Zhu X, Zhang Y, Skala D. Continuous biodiesel production under subcritical condition of methanol – Design of pilot plant and packed bed reactor with MnCO3/Na-silicate catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 2018;168:494-504
2
2
2

Calcium diglyceroxide synthesized by mechanochemical treatment, its characterization and application as catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters production

Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Zdujić, Miodrag; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/2315
AB  - In the present work, calcium diglyceroxide (CaDG) was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of CaO dispersed in glycerol, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Hammett indicator method for base strength determination. The obtained CaDG was tested as a catalyst in the methanolysis of sunflower oil under different working conditions: catalyst amount, agitation speed, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio. The main advantage of CaDG used as a catalyst in methanolysis is related to the initial rate of methanolysis. According to many previously reported data in literature the mass transfer resistance controls the overall rate of methanolysis, but it is not observed with CaDG used as catalyst. Recently developed kinetic model that describes the complex methanolysis process was successfully applied for this system and model parameters were determined, supporting the explanation of the physical effect of the CaDG catalyst on the reduction of mass transfer resistance and increasing the rate of methanolysis. The absence of mass transfer rate at the beginning of process is a consequence of the nature of the CaDG, which is adsorbed at the droplet interfaces between methanol and oil leading to the formation of fine dispersion of these two immiscible liquids.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Fuel
T1  - Calcium diglyceroxide synthesized by mechanochemical treatment, its characterization and application as catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters production
SP  - 159
EP  - 165
VL  - 165
DO  - 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.063
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Zdujić, Miodrag and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2016",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/2315",
abstract = "In the present work, calcium diglyceroxide (CaDG) was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of CaO dispersed in glycerol, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Hammett indicator method for base strength determination. The obtained CaDG was tested as a catalyst in the methanolysis of sunflower oil under different working conditions: catalyst amount, agitation speed, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio. The main advantage of CaDG used as a catalyst in methanolysis is related to the initial rate of methanolysis. According to many previously reported data in literature the mass transfer resistance controls the overall rate of methanolysis, but it is not observed with CaDG used as catalyst. Recently developed kinetic model that describes the complex methanolysis process was successfully applied for this system and model parameters were determined, supporting the explanation of the physical effect of the CaDG catalyst on the reduction of mass transfer resistance and increasing the rate of methanolysis. The absence of mass transfer rate at the beginning of process is a consequence of the nature of the CaDG, which is adsorbed at the droplet interfaces between methanol and oil leading to the formation of fine dispersion of these two immiscible liquids.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Fuel",
title = "Calcium diglyceroxide synthesized by mechanochemical treatment, its characterization and application as catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters production",
pages = "159-165",
volume = "165",
doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.063"
}
Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Zdujić, M.,& Skala, D. (2016). Calcium diglyceroxide synthesized by mechanochemical treatment, its characterization and application as catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters production.
FuelElsevier., 165, 159-165. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.063
Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Zdujić M, Skala D. Calcium diglyceroxide synthesized by mechanochemical treatment, its characterization and application as catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters production. Fuel. 2016;165:159-165
3
16
22
23

Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Veljković, Vlada B.; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Veljković, Vlada B.
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2016
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/2363
AB  - Calcium-containing perovskites CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 were synthesized by calcination of mechanochemically treated stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and either TiO2, MnO2, ZrO2 or Fe2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a pure single perovskite phase for all four samples after calcination. This study proved that the pure perovskite phase exhibited low or no catalytic activity at 60 °C for the methanolysis of sunflower oil. However, at 165 °C FAME yield of more than 90% was reached after 2 h using CaTiO3, CaMnO3 and CaZrO3 as catalyst. Contrary to inactive pure perovskites at 60 °C, the CaTiO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 samples containing a very small amount of “free” CaO also showed methanolysis activity at 60 °C. This fact can be used to explain some contradictory statements reported in literature related to the perovskites as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis at mild temperatures.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Fuel Processing Technology
T1  - Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis
SP  - 162
EP  - 168
VL  - 143
DO  - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.11.018
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Veljković, Vlada B. and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2016",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/2363",
abstract = "Calcium-containing perovskites CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 were synthesized by calcination of mechanochemically treated stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and either TiO2, MnO2, ZrO2 or Fe2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a pure single perovskite phase for all four samples after calcination. This study proved that the pure perovskite phase exhibited low or no catalytic activity at 60 °C for the methanolysis of sunflower oil. However, at 165 °C FAME yield of more than 90% was reached after 2 h using CaTiO3, CaMnO3 and CaZrO3 as catalyst. Contrary to inactive pure perovskites at 60 °C, the CaTiO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 samples containing a very small amount of “free” CaO also showed methanolysis activity at 60 °C. This fact can be used to explain some contradictory statements reported in literature related to the perovskites as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis at mild temperatures.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Fuel Processing Technology",
title = "Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis",
pages = "162-168",
volume = "143",
doi = "10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.11.018"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Jovalekić, Č., Veljković, V. B.,& Skala, D. (2016). Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis.
Fuel Processing TechnologyElsevier., 143, 162-168. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.11.018
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Jovalekić Č, Veljković VB, Skala D. Assessment of CaTiO3, CaMnO3, CaZrO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 perovskites as heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. Fuel Processing Technology. 2016;143:162-168
26
26
30

Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO·ZnO·K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3542
AB  - The goal of this study was to prepare a CaO·ZnO catalyst containing a small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. The catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (mole ratio of 1:2), water and K2CO3 (in various amounts) were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 °C in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO·ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4 mol of K2CO3 per 10 mol of CaO). All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett Indicator method). Prepared CaO·ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70 °C using mole ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mass% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. © 2015, CI and CEQ. All Rights Reserved.
PB  - Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia
T2  - Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly
T1  - Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO·ZnO·K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil
SP  - 1
EP  - 12
VL  - 21
IS  - 1
DO  - 10.2298/CICEQ131026041K
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2015",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/3542",
abstract = "The goal of this study was to prepare a CaO·ZnO catalyst containing a small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. The catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (mole ratio of 1:2), water and K2CO3 (in various amounts) were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 °C in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO·ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4 mol of K2CO3 per 10 mol of CaO). All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett Indicator method). Prepared CaO·ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70 °C using mole ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mass% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. © 2015, CI and CEQ. All Rights Reserved.",
publisher = "Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia",
journal = "Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly",
title = "Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO·ZnO·K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil",
pages = "1-12",
volume = "21",
number = "1",
doi = "10.2298/CICEQ131026041K"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Jovalekić, Č., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2015). Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO·ZnO·K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil.
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering QuarterlyBelgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia., 21(1), 1-12. 
https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ131026041K
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Jovalekić Č, Liu H, Skala D. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO·ZnO·K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 2015;21(1):1-12
5
6
9

Preparation of calcium containing mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the application in biodiesel synthesis

Kesić, Željka; Zdujić, Miodrag; Mojović, Ljiljana; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, 2015)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Mojović, Ljiljana
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2015
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/836
AB  - Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters - FAME) has been found suitable for using as an alternative fuel in diesel engine. The conventional method for biodiesel production is transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short-chain alcohols in the presence of catalysts. From an economic point of view, calcium oxide (CaO) is the most widely used and exhibits good catalytic properties for transesterification of triglycerides to biodiesel. In order to study the effect of solid base catalysts for biodiesel production, transesterification of edible sunflower oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of series of CaO-based oxides, obtained by mechanochemical treatment of CaO or CaCO3 with other metal oxides, followed by calcination. Mechanochemical treatment of starting powders mixtures was performed in a planetary ball mill using two different milling media, hardened steel or zirconia vials and balls. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), base strength using Hammett indicator method and the particle size using laser diffraction distribution (PSLD). All the experiments were carried out at different reaction conditions in 300 cm3 batch autoclave equipped with a heater and mixer. The calcium containing mechanochemically prepared catalysts were found to have enhanced activity compared to conventionally prepared catalysts.
PB  - Belgrade : Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA
C3  - Program and the Book of Abstracts / Fourteenth Young Researchers' Conference Materials Sciences and Engineering, December 9-11, 2015, Belgrade, Serbia
T1  - Preparation of calcium containing mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the application in biodiesel synthesis
SP  - 42
EP  - 42
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Zdujić, Miodrag and Mojović, Ljiljana and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2015",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/836",
abstract = "Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters - FAME) has been found suitable for using as an alternative fuel in diesel engine. The conventional method for biodiesel production is transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short-chain alcohols in the presence of catalysts. From an economic point of view, calcium oxide (CaO) is the most widely used and exhibits good catalytic properties for transesterification of triglycerides to biodiesel. In order to study the effect of solid base catalysts for biodiesel production, transesterification of edible sunflower oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of series of CaO-based oxides, obtained by mechanochemical treatment of CaO or CaCO3 with other metal oxides, followed by calcination. Mechanochemical treatment of starting powders mixtures was performed in a planetary ball mill using two different milling media, hardened steel or zirconia vials and balls. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), base strength using Hammett indicator method and the particle size using laser diffraction distribution (PSLD). All the experiments were carried out at different reaction conditions in 300 cm3 batch autoclave equipped with a heater and mixer. The calcium containing mechanochemically prepared catalysts were found to have enhanced activity compared to conventionally prepared catalysts.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA",
journal = "Program and the Book of Abstracts / Fourteenth Young Researchers' Conference Materials Sciences and Engineering, December 9-11, 2015, Belgrade, Serbia",
title = "Preparation of calcium containing mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the application in biodiesel synthesis",
pages = "42-42"
}
Kesić, Ž., Zdujić, M., Mojović, L.,& Skala, D. (2015). Preparation of calcium containing mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the application in biodiesel synthesis.
Program and the Book of Abstracts / Fourteenth Young Researchers' Conference Materials Sciences and Engineering, December 9-11, 2015, Belgrade, SerbiaBelgrade : Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA., null, 42-42. 
Kesić Ž, Zdujić M, Mojović L, Skala D. Preparation of calcium containing mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the application in biodiesel synthesis. Program and the Book of Abstracts / Fourteenth Young Researchers' Conference Materials Sciences and Engineering, December 9-11, 2015, Belgrade, Serbia. 2015;:42-42

Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions

Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Maksimović, Svetolik; Zdujić, Miodrag; Krstić, Jugoslav; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Maksimović, Svetolik
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Krstić, Jugoslav
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2014
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/655
AB  - The kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil was studied at 60°C using mechanochemically synthesized CaO∙ZnO as catalyst. Influence of agitation speed, catalyst amount and methanol to oil molar ratio on the rate of reaction was analyzed. The rate of the process depends on the two resistances - mass transfer of triglycerides to the catalyst surface and chemical reaction on the catalyst surface, which are defined as the values of the overall triglyceride volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kmt,TG, and the effective pseudo first-order reaction rate constant, k, respectively. These kinetic parameters actually determine the value of the apparent reaction rate constant, kapp, whose change with time is defined with the change of triglyceride (TG) conversion. The kinetic model was proposed and the model parameters determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001]
PB  - Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia
T2  - Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly
T1  - Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions
SP  - 425
EP  - 439
VL  - 20
IS  - 3
DO  - 10.2298/CICEQ130514025L
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Maksimović, Svetolik and Zdujić, Miodrag and Krstić, Jugoslav and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2014",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/655",
abstract = "The kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil was studied at 60°C using mechanochemically synthesized CaO∙ZnO as catalyst. Influence of agitation speed, catalyst amount and methanol to oil molar ratio on the rate of reaction was analyzed. The rate of the process depends on the two resistances - mass transfer of triglycerides to the catalyst surface and chemical reaction on the catalyst surface, which are defined as the values of the overall triglyceride volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kmt,TG, and the effective pseudo first-order reaction rate constant, k, respectively. These kinetic parameters actually determine the value of the apparent reaction rate constant, kapp, whose change with time is defined with the change of triglyceride (TG) conversion. The kinetic model was proposed and the model parameters determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001]",
publisher = "Belgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia",
journal = "Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly",
title = "Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions",
pages = "425-439",
volume = "20",
number = "3",
doi = "10.2298/CICEQ130514025L"
}
Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Maksimović, S., Zdujić, M., Krstić, J.,& Skala, D. (2014). Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions.
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering QuarterlyBelgrade: Association of the Chemical Engineers of Serbia., 20(3), 425-439. 
https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ130514025L
Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Maksimović S, Zdujić M, Krstić J, Skala D. Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 2014;20(3):425-439
18
18
25

Biodiesel synthesis based on CaO·ZnO.K2CO3 as catalyst

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Shao, Yong; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society, 2013)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Shao, Yong
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/423
AB  - The mixed oxide of CaO·ZnO and K2CO3 were prepared by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powders and water, with addition of K2CO3 and afterward by calcination at 700 oC. Influence of different molar ratio of K2CO3 and CaO (x=1, 2 and 4 moles of K2CO3 per 10 moles of CaO) was studied . The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning
electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution. The addition of smaller amount of K2CO3 at the beginning of ball miling (x≤2), favors the formation of calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate, while it is not the case when K2CO3 larger addition was used (x > 2). A larger amount of potassium carbonate in the initial
composition of powder mixture negatively affected formation of CaZn2(OH)6·2H2O. Bimodal distribution were detected for all samples after calcination at 700 oC and the results showed that the distribution of elements in the bulk is not homogeneous and that surface of formed mixed oxide CaO.ZnO (XPS analysis) after calcination is mainly covered by potassium species. That evidence indicate that the K2CO3 was not fully incorporated into the matrix. Prepared samples could be used for methanolysis of vegetable oil and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) synthesis.
PB  - Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society
C3  - Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade
T1  - Biodiesel synthesis based on CaO·ZnO.K2CO3 as catalyst
SP  - 46
EP  - 46
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Shao, Yong and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2013",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/423",
abstract = "The mixed oxide of CaO·ZnO and K2CO3 were prepared by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powders and water, with addition of K2CO3 and afterward by calcination at 700 oC. Influence of different molar ratio of K2CO3 and CaO (x=1, 2 and 4 moles of K2CO3 per 10 moles of CaO) was studied . The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning
electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution. The addition of smaller amount of K2CO3 at the beginning of ball miling (x≤2), favors the formation of calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate, while it is not the case when K2CO3 larger addition was used (x > 2). A larger amount of potassium carbonate in the initial
composition of powder mixture negatively affected formation of CaZn2(OH)6·2H2O. Bimodal distribution were detected for all samples after calcination at 700 oC and the results showed that the distribution of elements in the bulk is not homogeneous and that surface of formed mixed oxide CaO.ZnO (XPS analysis) after calcination is mainly covered by potassium species. That evidence indicate that the K2CO3 was not fully incorporated into the matrix. Prepared samples could be used for methanolysis of vegetable oil and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) synthesis.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society",
journal = "Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade",
title = "Biodiesel synthesis based on CaO·ZnO.K2CO3 as catalyst",
pages = "46-46"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Jovalekić, Č., Shao, Y., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2013). Biodiesel synthesis based on CaO·ZnO.K2CO3 as catalyst.
Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, BelgradeBelgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society., null, 46-46. 
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Jovalekić Č, Shao Y, Liu H, Skala D. Biodiesel synthesis based on CaO·ZnO.K2CO3 as catalyst. Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade. 2013;:46-46

Characterization of mechanochemically synthesized CaO·ZnO.K2CO3

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovalekić, Čedomir; Shao, Yong; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society, 2013)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovalekić, Čedomir
AU  - Shao, Yong
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/422
AB  - The mixed oxide of CaO·ZnO and K2CO3 were prepared by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powders and water, with addition of K2CO3 and afterward by calcination at 700 oC. Influence of different molar ratio of K2CO3 and CaO (x=1, 2 and 4 moles of K2CO3 per 10 moles of CaO) was studied . The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution. The addition of smaller amount of K2CO3 at the beginning of ball miling (x≤2), favors the formation of calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate, while it is not the case when K2CO3 larger addition was used (x > 2). A larger amount of potassium carbonate in the initial composition of powder mixture negatively affected formation of CaZn2(OH)6·2H2O. Bimodal distribution were detected for all samples after calcination at 700 oC and the results showed that the distribution of elements in the bulk is not homogeneous and that surface of formed mixed oxide CaO.ZnO (XPS analysis) after calcination is mainly covered by potassium species. That evidence indicate that the K2CO3 was not fully incorporated into the matrix. Prepared samples could be used for methanolysis of vegetable oil and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) synthesis.
PB  - Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society
C3  - Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade
T1  - Characterization of mechanochemically synthesized CaO·ZnO.K2CO3
SP  - 45
EP  - 45
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovalekić, Čedomir and Shao, Yong and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2013",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/422",
abstract = "The mixed oxide of CaO·ZnO and K2CO3 were prepared by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powders and water, with addition of K2CO3 and afterward by calcination at 700 oC. Influence of different molar ratio of K2CO3 and CaO (x=1, 2 and 4 moles of K2CO3 per 10 moles of CaO) was studied . The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD) distribution. The addition of smaller amount of K2CO3 at the beginning of ball miling (x≤2), favors the formation of calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate, while it is not the case when K2CO3 larger addition was used (x > 2). A larger amount of potassium carbonate in the initial composition of powder mixture negatively affected formation of CaZn2(OH)6·2H2O. Bimodal distribution were detected for all samples after calcination at 700 oC and the results showed that the distribution of elements in the bulk is not homogeneous and that surface of formed mixed oxide CaO.ZnO (XPS analysis) after calcination is mainly covered by potassium species. That evidence indicate that the K2CO3 was not fully incorporated into the matrix. Prepared samples could be used for methanolysis of vegetable oil and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) synthesis.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society",
journal = "Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade",
title = "Characterization of mechanochemically synthesized CaO·ZnO.K2CO3",
pages = "45-45"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Jovalekić, Č., Shao, Y., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2013). Characterization of mechanochemically synthesized CaO·ZnO.K2CO3.
Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, BelgradeBelgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society., null, 45-45. 
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Jovalekić Č, Shao Y, Liu H, Skala D. Characterization of mechanochemically synthesized CaO·ZnO.K2CO3. Advanced Ceramics and Application : new frontiers in multifunctional material science and processing : program and the book of abstracts : II Serbian Ceramic Society Conference, Sep 30th-Oct 1st, 2013, Belgrade. 2013;:45-45

Kinetics of sunflower and used vegetable oil methanolysis catalyzed by CaO·ZnO

Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Maksimović, Svetolik; Zdujić, Miodrag; Krstić, Jugoslav; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Maksimović, Svetolik
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Krstić, Jugoslav
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2013
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/361
AB  - The kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil and used vegetable oil were studied at different temperatures, ranging from 60 to 96 °C using CaO·ZnO as catalyst (2 wt% on the basis of oil) and methanol to oil molar ratio of 10:1. Heterogeneous CaO·ZnO catalyst was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of CaO and ZnO powder mixture with the addition of water necessary for the formation of corresponding mixed hydroxides, and their calcination at 700 °C in air. It was shown that kinetics of overall process could be described as pseudo-first order reaction. For the sunflower oil methanolysis at 60 and 70 °C, the rate of process at the beginning of biodiesel synthesis was limited by triglycerides mass transfer to the catalyst surface, and after that it is governed by the rate of chemical reaction at catalyst surface. At higher temperatures the influence of mass transfer resistance is almost negligible implying that the rate of chemical reaction determines the overall kinetic of biodiesel synthesis. In the case of used vegetable oil, the influence of mass transfer resistance was not observed either at higher or lower temperature. The kinetic model that describes the whole process well was proposed, and it comprises both the triglycerides mass transfer and chemical reaction controlled regime. The overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient was defined, assuming that it depends on the conversion of triglycerides.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Fuel
T1  - Kinetics of sunflower and used vegetable oil methanolysis catalyzed by CaO·ZnO
SP  - 367
EP  - 378
VL  - 113
DO  - 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.093
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Maksimović, Svetolik and Zdujić, Miodrag and Krstić, Jugoslav and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2013",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/361",
abstract = "The kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil and used vegetable oil were studied at different temperatures, ranging from 60 to 96 °C using CaO·ZnO as catalyst (2 wt% on the basis of oil) and methanol to oil molar ratio of 10:1. Heterogeneous CaO·ZnO catalyst was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of CaO and ZnO powder mixture with the addition of water necessary for the formation of corresponding mixed hydroxides, and their calcination at 700 °C in air. It was shown that kinetics of overall process could be described as pseudo-first order reaction. For the sunflower oil methanolysis at 60 and 70 °C, the rate of process at the beginning of biodiesel synthesis was limited by triglycerides mass transfer to the catalyst surface, and after that it is governed by the rate of chemical reaction at catalyst surface. At higher temperatures the influence of mass transfer resistance is almost negligible implying that the rate of chemical reaction determines the overall kinetic of biodiesel synthesis. In the case of used vegetable oil, the influence of mass transfer resistance was not observed either at higher or lower temperature. The kinetic model that describes the whole process well was proposed, and it comprises both the triglycerides mass transfer and chemical reaction controlled regime. The overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient was defined, assuming that it depends on the conversion of triglycerides.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Fuel",
title = "Kinetics of sunflower and used vegetable oil methanolysis catalyzed by CaO·ZnO",
pages = "367-378",
volume = "113",
doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.093"
}
Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Maksimović, S., Zdujić, M., Krstić, J.,& Skala, D. (2013). Kinetics of sunflower and used vegetable oil methanolysis catalyzed by CaO·ZnO.
FuelElsevier., 113, 367-378. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.093
Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Maksimović S, Zdujić M, Krstić J, Skala D. Kinetics of sunflower and used vegetable oil methanolysis catalyzed by CaO·ZnO. Fuel. 2013;113:367-378
51
61
66

Characterization of Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO·ZnO/K2O Mixed Oxides

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovanović, Dušan; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society, 2012)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovanović, Dušan
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/505
AB  - Room temperature ball milling of CaO and ZnO powder mixture (using molar ratio of CaO:ZnO of 1:2) with the addition of stoichiometrically required amount of water to form calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate (CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O) and subsequent calcination at 700 oC was conducted. In order to improve basicity of mixed oxides, calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate was modified by the addition of promoters. The addition of promoter in initial powder mixture such as K2CO3 and KOH (with molar ratio of promoter to CaO of 1:10) was shown to effect the mechanochemical reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), base strength using Hammett indicator method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDS). The results showed that, during mechanochemical treatment, CaO, ZnO and H2O reacted rapidly to form CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O, and this was the same when promoters were used. Only difference was in basicity of the catalysts, and opposite of the expected, results showed that the addition of promoters did not cause an increase of basicity. On the other hand, addition of KOH to initial powder mixture caused increase of carbonates formation during mechanochemical treatment.
PB  - Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society
C3  - The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts
T1  - Characterization of Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO·ZnO/K2O Mixed Oxides
SP  - 28
EP  - 28
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovanović, Dušan and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2012",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/505",
abstract = "Room temperature ball milling of CaO and ZnO powder mixture (using molar ratio of CaO:ZnO of 1:2) with the addition of stoichiometrically required amount of water to form calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate (CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O) and subsequent calcination at 700 oC was conducted. In order to improve basicity of mixed oxides, calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate was modified by the addition of promoters. The addition of promoter in initial powder mixture such as K2CO3 and KOH (with molar ratio of promoter to CaO of 1:10) was shown to effect the mechanochemical reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), base strength using Hammett indicator method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDS). The results showed that, during mechanochemical treatment, CaO, ZnO and H2O reacted rapidly to form CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O, and this was the same when promoters were used. Only difference was in basicity of the catalysts, and opposite of the expected, results showed that the addition of promoters did not cause an increase of basicity. On the other hand, addition of KOH to initial powder mixture caused increase of carbonates formation during mechanochemical treatment.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society",
journal = "The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts",
title = "Characterization of Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO·ZnO/K2O Mixed Oxides",
pages = "28-28"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Jovanović, D., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2012). Characterization of Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO·ZnO/K2O Mixed Oxides.
The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of AbstractsBelgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society., null, 28-28. 
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Jovanović D, Liu H, Skala D. Characterization of Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO·ZnO/K2O Mixed Oxides. The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts. 2012;:28-28

Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO ZnO Catalyst For Biodiesel Production

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Zdujić, Miodrag; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/738
AB  - The transesterification of triglycerides (vegetable oil) with methanol using CaO·ZnO mixed oxides catalyst were conducted to produce FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, i.e. biodiesel). Catalyst was synthesized by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powder mixture (using molar ratio of Ca and Zn of 1:2 and 1:4) with the addition of water, as well as solely by ball milling (molar ratio of 1:2) of mentioned powders and subsequent. After ball milling prepared mixtures were calcinatied at 700 oC in air atmosphere. The samples of formed catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size distribution as well as the base strength using Hammett indicator was determined, too. CaO.ZnO catalysts were used in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, at 60 oC and 1 bar, using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight. All catalysts exhibited good activity in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, with the yield of FAME above 90% after 4 hours of reaction.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Procedia Engineering
T1  - Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO ZnO Catalyst For Biodiesel Production
SP  - 1169
EP  - 1178
DO  - 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.509
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Zdujić, Miodrag and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2012",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/738",
abstract = "The transesterification of triglycerides (vegetable oil) with methanol using CaO·ZnO mixed oxides catalyst were conducted to produce FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, i.e. biodiesel). Catalyst was synthesized by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powder mixture (using molar ratio of Ca and Zn of 1:2 and 1:4) with the addition of water, as well as solely by ball milling (molar ratio of 1:2) of mentioned powders and subsequent. After ball milling prepared mixtures were calcinatied at 700 oC in air atmosphere. The samples of formed catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size distribution as well as the base strength using Hammett indicator was determined, too. CaO.ZnO catalysts were used in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, at 60 oC and 1 bar, using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight. All catalysts exhibited good activity in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, with the yield of FAME above 90% after 4 hours of reaction.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Procedia Engineering",
title = "Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO ZnO Catalyst For Biodiesel Production",
pages = "1169-1178",
doi = "10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.509"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Zdujić, M., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2012). Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO ZnO Catalyst For Biodiesel Production.
Procedia EngineeringElsevier., null, 1169-1178. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.509
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Zdujić M, Liu H, Skala D. Mechanochemically Synthesized CaO ZnO Catalyst For Biodiesel Production. Procedia Engineering. 2012;:1169-1178
13
13
14

Mechanochemical Preparation of CaO·ZnO – catalyst for Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Synthesis

Lukić, Ivana; Kesić, Željka; Zdujić, Miodrag; Jovanović, Dušan; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society, 2012)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Jovanović, Dušan
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/513
AB  - One of the catalysts that show excellent activity in the methanolysis of vegetable oil under moderate reaction conditions is the mixture of CaO and ZnO oxides. In this study CaO•ZnO catalyst was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of ZnO and Ca(OH)2 or CaO powder mixture (using molar ratio of CaO (or Ca(OH)2):ZnO of 1:2) with the addition of required water amount to form calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate (CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O) and subsequent calcinations at 700 °C in air atmosphere. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was studied at 60 °C with the molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight. Characterisation of the catalyst was performed by XRD, TGA/DSC, FTIR, the particle size distribution and Hammett indicator method. The solubility of the catalyst in methanol at 60 °C was also determined by measuring the calcium(II) and zinc(II) concentration. The results showed that whether Ca(OH)2 or CaO were used as a starting material, after calcination an active catalyst composed of CaO and ZnO was obtained. When CaO was used in the starting mixture, basicity was slightly higher, while the amount of present carbonates was lower.
PB  - Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society
C3  - The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts
T1  - Mechanochemical Preparation of CaO·ZnO – catalyst for Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Synthesis
SP  - 18
EP  - 18
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Lukić, Ivana and Kesić, Željka and Zdujić, Miodrag and Jovanović, Dušan and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2012",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/513",
abstract = "One of the catalysts that show excellent activity in the methanolysis of vegetable oil under moderate reaction conditions is the mixture of CaO and ZnO oxides. In this study CaO•ZnO catalyst was synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of ZnO and Ca(OH)2 or CaO powder mixture (using molar ratio of CaO (or Ca(OH)2):ZnO of 1:2) with the addition of required water amount to form calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate (CaZn2(OH)6•2H2O) and subsequent calcinations at 700 °C in air atmosphere. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was studied at 60 °C with the molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight. Characterisation of the catalyst was performed by XRD, TGA/DSC, FTIR, the particle size distribution and Hammett indicator method. The solubility of the catalyst in methanol at 60 °C was also determined by measuring the calcium(II) and zinc(II) concentration. The results showed that whether Ca(OH)2 or CaO were used as a starting material, after calcination an active catalyst composed of CaO and ZnO was obtained. When CaO was used in the starting mixture, basicity was slightly higher, while the amount of present carbonates was lower.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society",
journal = "The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts",
title = "Mechanochemical Preparation of CaO·ZnO – catalyst for Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Synthesis",
pages = "18-18"
}
Lukić, I., Kesić, Ž., Zdujić, M., Jovanović, D., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2012). Mechanochemical Preparation of CaO·ZnO – catalyst for Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Synthesis.
The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of AbstractsBelgrade : Serbian Ceramic Society., null, 18-18. 
Lukić I, Kesić Ž, Zdujić M, Jovanović D, Liu H, Skala D. Mechanochemical Preparation of CaO·ZnO – catalyst for Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Synthesis. The First Serbian Ceramic Society Conference "Advanced Ceramics and Application" May 10-11, 2012: Program and the Book of Abstracts. 2012;:18-18

Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO·ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis

Kesić, Željka; Lukić, Ivana; Brkić, Dragana; Rogan, Jelena; Zdujić, Miodrag; Liu, Hui; Skala, Dejan

(Elsevier, 2012)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Kesić, Željka
AU  - Lukić, Ivana
AU  - Brkić, Dragana
AU  - Rogan, Jelena
AU  - Zdujić, Miodrag
AU  - Liu, Hui
AU  - Skala, Dejan
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/473
AB  - In this study, the synthesis of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol using CaO·ZnO catalyst was investigated. Catalyst was synthesized by ball milling of Ca(OH)2 and ZnO powder mixture with the addition of water (BMH), as well as solely by ball milling of mentioned powders (BM) and subsequent calcination at 700 °C in air atmosphere. For comparison, the CaO·ZnO mixed oxide was also prepared using usual coprecipitation procedure (CP) followed by calcination at 700 °C of the formed calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate. The BMH, BM and CP catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDS). In addition, specific surface area (BET), solubility in methanol at 60 °C and alkalinity (Hammett indicator method) were also determined. The activity of BMH, BM and CP catalysts for biodiesel synthesis were tested at 60 °C and 1 bar, using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight.
PB  - Elsevier
T2  - Applied Catalysis A: General
T1  - Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO·ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis
SP  - 58
EP  - 65
DO  - 10.1016/j.apcata.2012.03.032
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Kesić, Željka and Lukić, Ivana and Brkić, Dragana and Rogan, Jelena and Zdujić, Miodrag and Liu, Hui and Skala, Dejan",
year = "2012",
url = "http://dais.sanu.ac.rs/123456789/473",
abstract = "In this study, the synthesis of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol using CaO·ZnO catalyst was investigated. Catalyst was synthesized by ball milling of Ca(OH)2 and ZnO powder mixture with the addition of water (BMH), as well as solely by ball milling of mentioned powders (BM) and subsequent calcination at 700 °C in air atmosphere. For comparison, the CaO·ZnO mixed oxide was also prepared using usual coprecipitation procedure (CP) followed by calcination at 700 °C of the formed calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate. The BMH, BM and CP catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDS). In addition, specific surface area (BET), solubility in methanol at 60 °C and alkalinity (Hammett indicator method) were also determined. The activity of BMH, BM and CP catalysts for biodiesel synthesis were tested at 60 °C and 1 bar, using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight.",
publisher = "Elsevier",
journal = "Applied Catalysis A: General",
title = "Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO·ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis",
pages = "58-65",
doi = "10.1016/j.apcata.2012.03.032"
}
Kesić, Ž., Lukić, I., Brkić, D., Rogan, J., Zdujić, M., Liu, H.,& Skala, D. (2012). Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO·ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis.
Applied Catalysis A: GeneralElsevier., null, 58-65. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2012.03.032
Kesić Ž, Lukić I, Brkić D, Rogan J, Zdujić M, Liu H, Skala D. Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO·ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Applied Catalysis A: General. 2012;:58-65
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